The history of the red brigades in italy is a teaching sugar of the immigration of a political organization by equal to multiple intelligence – benefits always brought her right – as well again
Last saturday, in rome, millions of people protested against minister prosident silvio berlusconi. The most influential of the three union books, cgil, can now be brought to rest, the large demonstration in the history of the italian republic. This demonstration was expression of an extremely tense situation between the center-right government and social organizations. Reason for the youngest protests is the planned change in the right to know. Article 18 is unexpectedly defended by the people. "This fight has become the symbol for the fight against berlusconi and the symbol for the fight against the neoliberal politics", says the philosopher domenico losurdo.
In the midst of this conflict and four days before the gross demonstration as expected, last tuesday against 20.30 o’clock the economic professor marco biagi shot in front of his house in bologna. The 51-year labor lawyers advised the welfare minister roberto maroni, member of the extreme-right lega nord, for changing the article 18. Biagi was a co-author of a team of the government berlusconi to the labor market, which was presented last october.
At the scene, the police found stamp on the walls, which the symbol of the group "brigate rosse" (br), the red brigades, showed. The red brigades had been grounded in august 1970. The first part of her name, the group was once rebound by the german "red army fraction" (raf), the "brigade" on the basis of the partisan camp vapor against the fascists a few decades previously. Murder of marco biagi solder not only in italy restlessness. Many media prophes "new edition of terror", as in several editors by email a confess writing of the group. Now one was sure: the red brigades were released again on the political bean. Minister prosident berlusconi showed in a television address. The stop is an indication of the "deep hatred", the country still determine. Berlusconi demanded the unions to agree to reform. Do not yield thirst for the prere of terror.
But there are also critical voices. After all, the abolition of the common symbol, a fif-zipy star, 1981 was considered the official end of the red brigades. In the years before the group had been demonstrably undermined by the same number of intelligence services. The long-term italian correspondent and book author gerhard feldbauer is certainly safe, "that the murder of biagi is a further link in a chain of actions to redeem the strategy practiced in the seventies and eighties". As part of this strategy designed by the us cia, not only left-wing-radical groups of police and intelligence tags were at murder and terror. Police agents, mostly fascists, did not even carry out impensable terrorist attacks, for which then anarchists and autonomous persecuted and often recruited for years in innocent.
Already at the first stop of the strategies on the 12th. December 1969 in the mailder agricultural bank at piazza fontana (16 dead, over 80 injured) performed by neofascist terrorists, an agent provocateur was at the factory, which should lead the tracks to the left. The neofaschist mario merlino recruited as intelligence tags is an anarchist circle, for which he was chambering the ballet tanzer pietro valpreda, which was then presented with false testimonies as one of the organizers of the attentate.
From the long chain of the known trap another: the neofashist and belongings of the nato group "gladio", gianfranco bertoli, moved in may 1973 a bomb attack on the maillander police proseidium (four dead, 52 injured). Minister prosident rumor should also be killed, which arrived to spat and thus escaping the assassination. The bertoli arrested at the scene explained anarchist who wanted to throat the death of his 1969 by the police-killed anarchist-friendly pinelli. As "proof" he showed a tatow on his arm "a" in a circle, the recognition sign of the anarchists.
Sabotage and sympathy in the factories
The red brigades were far dangerous for the state than any other linksextreme group. During the "red army fraction" in west germany from a few members, which acted in isolation of any social movement, the brigate rosse could pay for support to support portions of the workforce. It was a young generation directed against the establishment of the italian communist party (ikp). In the initial phase, the br were influenced by the ideas antonio gamscis as well as those of the ikp mitbunders amadeo bordiga. The later leaders of the br, renato curcio and mauro rostagno, brought the font to the sociological faculty of the university of trentino 1968 "fuori dei denti" (openly said) out. In it, she wies violence as a means of political action decidedly resumed and criticized the "revolutionary impatience" the advocate.
The br went in 1969 the basic "coarse city collective" in advance. This group put on construction work in factories. After a few months, the collective on basic groups in pirelli, siemens and fiat. The basis of the actions was the "armed propaganda", which aimed for the auditing of the manager and should support the claims of the workforce. One demanded the resolution of the private workpole and organized sabotage in the companies. In september 1970, the car of the siemens manager giuseppe leoni was founded in milan, followed by links to the cars of the safety chief and the personnel manager of pirelli. On the third marz 1971, a command explained the director of work organization, idalgo macchiarini. The man was responsible for the speed of the fleebander and therefore not very popular in the factories. Macchiarini is held for 20 minutes and photographed with a sign. It is to be read: "strike and departure! Nothing will remain unpunished! A meeting to educate a hundred!"
From the middle of the seventies, a change in the lead of brigate took place. Thus, a rapid increase in violence went back. As shown in the investigation of a parliamentary control committee in the early 1990s, several agents had already been inserted into the br in 1974. One of them has been francesco marra, who was deployed as a paratrooper in a nato-stutzpunkt on sardinia and was trained at the gladio special group. The gladio group was a special unit of nato, known there under the name "stay behind". The "gladiator", overall, it was allowed over 15.To have been 000, in the case of the cia. Marra was that, after the renato curcio, after the expulsion of the genoese court chairman mario sossi 1974, was pladated in 1974 for its execution. The wiring wars of the brigades rejected that.
Until 1976, the basic members were all captured. For this, the activity of the v people in the group was responsible. With mario moretti then a hardliner jerked to the top of the organization, which is not liable for political murders. With the shot of the attorney francesco coco on 8. June 1976 in genoa on open strain began "lead years", the bloodiest and at the same time last chapter of the red brigades.
The last 55. Days of the aldo moro
At 16. Marz 1978, in the morning at 9.00 clock, fell the phones in the northwest of rome for an hour. Between 9.00 clock and 9.05 clock was there, on the edge of the small park villa tre colli, the christian democratic party chairman aldo moro in his limousine. The funf body waxes of the politician died. Moro himself is dragged and 55 days later executive.
Funf people in the car were hit. Moro himself remained unhurt: the br boss moretti gave years later to protocol that it "with the militaric precision of br has never been far from", at the action "no excellent protests" been. In one, the machine gun had charged charging. Nevertheless, too, that will come for years later, found at the scene 93 cartridge horsse. Just the half was overdrawn with a special shoe that was used only with the gladio / nato troops. Ammunition with the paint intake could be buried over a longest period.
The then minister prosident giulio andreotti ordered in a speech after murder to tackle with relentless hard. Negotiations were rejected, the security apparatus sat in motion. Behind everything at this time the secret lodge "propaganda due" (p2). She was founded at the beginning of the 1970s and sat down from us and italian intelligenceers. Among the uber 2000 log members are 43 generals, including the entire lead tip of the intelligence services of the past 30 years, the complete general staff of the army, high police footwear and about 400 officers. The p2 pursued the goal with a "cold" county to take the power to eliminate ikp and establish a dictatorial regime to chilean role model. Member of the p2 was also the director-general of the state telephone company sip, michele principe. Chief of the secret lodes was the altfashist licio gelli, whose secretary said ten years later before the parliamentary investigation committee "the actual boss andreotti and not gelli" was. The minister prosident had to know about the assassination plan. Why he did not step?
The communist party has increased its share of votes steadily in the 1970s. In 1963, the party received a good 23 percent of the votes, in 1976 it was almost 34 percent. Moro entered in this situation for a tactical covenism with the ikp. The communists should be integrated into the political system to give them to. The moros line rely on decisive resistance of the fascist groups in the country and the us. When the politician traveled to washington in 1974, he was massively pressed, but his line remained faithful. The tone became sharp. "Either horse them, or they will pay it expensive", if you told your husband back then, the widow, eleonora moro.
A key figure is henry kissinger, which follows moro fortan on the heels. Kissinger evaluated the politics moros as "excessive negative" and called him the "allende italy", the "danger as castro" may be. Meanwhile, washington was announced that a participation of the communists were in direct contradiction to nato. In january, three months before his expulsion and just five months before his execution, moro schloss the government agreement with italy’s communist party.
Recreation of the voltage strategy?
In the anti-globalization protests against the g-8 summit in genoa in july last year, a new organization was called "black block" discussion. In fact, such a group has come in appearance. How only later became known, but they obese members of the neofascist "forza nuova" at. At a storm on an alternative media center "video cassettes and other image documents were confiscated independent press representatives, which prove that parts of the ‘black block’ were controlled and organized by infiltrated policemen that the police tolerated the autonomous over each mab beyond a pacific movement of 300.000 people discredit and criminalize", said the representative of the group "tute bianche" after the events. The professor giuseppe de lutis known about the gladio group and intelligence complete, in the light of this experience and after a bomb attack on the ministry of interior in rome, reference in rome in the beginning of marz pointed out that the patterns of action of the strategic strategists are clearly visible.
"Berlusconi come such a confirmation as called", does book author feldbauer says. He now needs them to distract from the still persistent protests and investigations to the riots in genoa. To justify the bloody approach in genoa, "has he invented a murder attack as the youngest distraction manobe, which had planned in genoa linksterroristen and al qaeda people against us prassident bush".
The philosopher and hegel researcher losurdo points to another circumstance:
"The last murder attack, for which the brigades are made responsible, occurred in 1999. Also then a government consultant was shot. At the time of the attack, mass demonstrations of the left against the nato war in yugoslavia took place throughout the country where a broad spectrum of parties and organizations participated. After the stop, the movement broke almost together, and the participation in the actions went back rapidly because the government put the left protesters and the so-called red brigades on a level. That happened to the enormous media power, on the berlusconi. Today we again have mass demonstrations – and again a murder."
Nevertheless, the protests against berlusconi continue to go. As a next, a general strike should be proclaimed against the reforms and the "establishment of fascism", like dario fo named it. Last saturday, the demonstrators have also filed a silkine for the murdered.