The baghdad train should stabilize the ottoman empire and expand the influence of the german reich
After the story of baghdad published the faz on 16.3.2004 the "atlas of accessibility": a card marked a flebing connection from berlin to baghdad. Schirrmacher texted mine: "the horizon of the new world order is no longer nailed with boards." a berlin exhibition to the history of "baghdad" now reminds that the dream of the baghdad connection is neither new, nor so unproblematic, as some showed a april 2003.
It should be a brucke, which associate the different worlds of the ottoman empire with each other: the "baghdad", which was created as a railway line between istanbul and baghdad. At that time, baghdad presented an outdoor post of the ottoman empire in the arab region and could be used beyond the starting point for further expansions.
Thus, these two bads were some mammals of the vertices of the imperial coordinate system. Within this coordinate system, cities, dorfer, wissenstriche and mountains – geological and geo-political units, which should be linked with the last reserves of the wankelmignant reich. It was the last chance for the ottoman empire – before everything fell apart.
Railway connections for rule stabilization
It was also the last chance to settle to the other rough rich. Because the connection was obviously missed. The others had sealed the next imperial stage with a technological and logistical quantum leap after the discovery and conquest phase by ship. They built railway networks to complete the conquered territory completely and subject. Your political, military and economic influence should be secured by the construction of rail strands. The potency of the empire, so that all actors seemed agreed to measure at the outwards and efficiency of his rail network.
During some construction projects unfinished projects remained and others who could be completed, only part of the respective empire could network, succeeded the russian tsaren empire with the construction of the "transistory railway" a reichsughelfing connection.
Which originated from 1891 to 1916 between moscow and vladivostok as the longest railway line in the world, not only a prestige object presented for the tsaren empire, but also a panacea. The "transistory railway" should help to colonize the siberian room to better defend the territory and to win a coarse influence on china and the manscherei.
Also the problem of overvolence in the russian core country, which one wanted to meet by a settlement of russians in western siberia, should be overwurt with the new miracle weapon. In addition, one hoped for a starting of industrial development of the country.
With german help
With similarly high expectations, the ottoman empire also went at the beginning of the 20. Century to the work when it started the "baghdad" to plan. Typical of the then situation of the ottoman empire was that european made this dream not only prominently brought a prominent to obedience, but also took the end to the ideas and donors of this project. The emerging german reich took over the scepter after it ends the end of the 19. For centuries as a new, serious actor entered the building of world politics.
The european equilibrium of the made was already significantly in the wavering at this time – england felt a new one "rough strategy" to themselves and even called for the troop of his crown colony india – when germany began to fabulate the fastest connection between europe and india. Beautifully baught by england and france, it closed a pact with the ottoman empire. Soon germany’s visions should also visit the sultan of istanbul.
It should also not last long until the connection istanbul-konia could be produced with german capital. But the construction process soon got, because economic problems and clashes with england and france came in between. Only at an istanbulreise in 1898, the german emperor was able to plan the tarpaulin with sultan abdul hamid ii. Renew. German banks were now on his hiking to finance further construction, the contract for the construction executation got the german construction company philipp holzmann.
After all the contract were under the roof and subject, was created in istanbul with the "societe imperial ottoman du chemin de fer de baghdad" the bagdaderebahngesellschaft, who wanted to realize the project within less than 10 years. From konia the route about adana, mosul, samarra, baghdad to bashdown should be continued to basra on the indian ocean.
Was the "baghdad" in the power vacuum of empires, their completion was initially arrested in the embryonic stage due to geo-political conflicts. The confuses of the first world war prevented that the project could be completed planning.
The range of "baghdad" until the upper mesopotamia, as well as their branches in the western part of the arabian peninsula, at this time, however, were considerable enough to be perceived as a threat. It became the strategic goal of attacks that should lame the network of the ottoman empire. With "lawrence of arabia" (1962) this phase of the baghdadbahn wrote in the cultural history.
David leans monumental wissenfilm shows several attacks supported by the british "arab aree" on the ottoman railway lines. These attacks, which are portrayed as important successes against the ottoman empire, are the only moments in the movie in which traces of the turkish enemy celebrate prominent. Because apart from the relevant long sequences that the "baghdad" show (rails, locomotives, wagons and passengers), the ottoman empire is only phased in rare moments with savings of bombers, fortresses and soldiers.
So significant for the status of the ottoman empire this absence is, so meaningful are leans bahnepisodes. They properly introduced how tight the models "imperium" and "rail network" have been. Yes, how important the latter has been for the unfolding and the continuation of the former. The director suggests that the successful attacks on the net, the case have sealed.
The last rails of the "baghdad" have been laid after the first world war. And when the route istanbul-baghdad was passable for the first time in 1940, the ottoman empire has been disintegrating for almost 20 years.
The exhibition "baghdad and hedjazbahn" is in berlin from 7. October 2004 to 9. January 2005 in the vorderasian museum.